Problem Find the area individually enclosed by the following Cardioids: (A) $r = a(1 - \cos \theta)$ (B) $r = a(1 + \cos \theta)$ (C) $r = a(1 - \sin \theta)$ (D) $r = a(1 + \sin \theta)$

Problem What is the perimeter of the curve r = 4(1 + sin θ)?

The answer is 32 units. For detailed solution, follow the link by clicking on the figure.

Example 3 Find the area inside the cardioid r = a(1 + cos θ) but outside the circle r = a.

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