# Geometric Progression

## Duel of Two 50% Marksmen: Odds in favor of the man who shoots first

**Problem**

Smith and Jones, both 50% marksmen, decide to fight a duel in which they exchange alternate shots until one is hit. What are the odds in favor of the man who shoots first?

A. 1/3 | C. 2/3 |

B. 1/2 | D. 1/4 |

## Sum of Areas of Infinite Number of Squares

**Problem**

The side of a square is 10 m. A second square is formed by joining, in the proper order, the midpoints of the sides of the first square. A third square is formed by joining the midpoints of the second square, and so on. Find the sum of the areas of all the squares if the process will continue indefinitely.

## Sum of Areas of Equilateral Triangles Inscribed in Circles

**Problem**

An equilateral triangle is inscribed within a circle whose diameter is 12 cm. In this triangle a circle is inscribed; and in this circle, another equilateral triangle is inscribed; and so on indefinitely. Find the sum of the areas of all the triangles.

## Numbers 4, 2, 5, and 18 are Added Respectively to the First Four Terms of AP, Forming Into a GP

**Problem**

If 4, 2, 5, and 18 are added respectively to the first four terms of an arithmetic progression, the resulting series is a geometric progression. What is the common difference of the arithmetic progression?

## Geometric progression with some given terms

**Situation**

The 4^{th} term of a geometric progression is 6 and the 10^{th} term is 384.

Part 1: What is the common ratio of the G.P.?

A. 1.5

B. 3

C. 2.5

D. 2

Part 2: What is the first term?

A. 0.75

B. 1.5

C. 3

D. 0.5

Part 3: What is the seventh term?

A. 24

B. 32

C. 48

D. 96

## Arithmetic, geometric, and harmonic progressions

**Elements***a*_{1} = value of the first term*a*_{m} = value of any term after the first term but before the last term*a _{n}* = value of the last term

*n*= total number of terms

*m*=

*m*

^{th}term after the first but before

*n*

^{th}

*d*= common difference of arithmetic progression

*r*= common ratio of geometric progression

*S*= sum of the 1

^{st}

*n*terms

## Derivation of Formula for the Future Amount of Ordinary Annuity

The sum of ordinary annuity is given by

To learn more about annuity, see this page: ordinary annuity, deferred annuity, annuity due, and perpetuity.

### Derivation

$F = \text{ Sum}$

$F = A + F_1 + F_2 + F_3 + \cdots + F_{n-1} + F_n$

$F = A + A(1 + i) + A(1 + i)^2 + A(1 + i)^3 + \cdots + A(1 + i)^{n-1} + A(1 + i)^n$

## Relationship Between Arithmetic Mean, Harmonic Mean, and Geometric Mean of Two Numbers

For two numbers *x* and *y*, let *x*, *a*, *y* be a sequence of three numbers. If *x*, *a*, *y* is an arithmetic progression then '*a*' is called *arithmetic mean*. If *x*, *a*, *y* is a geometric progression then '*a*' is called *geometric mean*. If *x*, *a*, *y* form a harmonic progression then '*a*' is called *harmonic mean*.

Let *AM* = arithmetic mean, *GM* = geometric mean, and *HM* = harmonic mean. The relationship between the three is given by the formula

Below is the derivation of this relationship.

## Derivation of Sum of Finite and Infinite Geometric Progression

**Geometric Progression, GP**

Geometric progression (also known as geometric sequence) is a sequence of numbers where the ratio of any two adjacent terms is constant. The constant ratio is called the common ratio, *r* of geometric progression. Each term therefore in geometric progression is found by multiplying the previous one by *r*.

**Eaxamples of GP:**

- 3, 6, 12, 24, … is a geometric progression with
*r*= 2 - 10, -5, 2.5, -1.25, … is a geometric progression with
*r*= -1/2